신과학/철학
초심리학/잠재능력
UFO/신물리학
오컬티즘/미스터리

과학적, 비과학적 의학
동서양 대체의학

창조론/과학적 사실성
창조론/철학과 정치

스켑틱스/기타 주제
KOPSA 박물관

 

대중매체 모니터링
질문과 답

토론방법
토론사례

연구회원 게시판
연구위원 게시판

 

스켑틱스/기타 주제
   
  갤럽조사, 미국인의 초정상 현상에 대한 믿음
  글쓴이 : kopsa     날짜 : 01-06-12 20:12     조회 : 5270    
갤럽조사, 미국인의 초정상 현상에 대한 믿음 

2001년 6월 8일 미국인의 초정상 현상에 대한 믿음을 조사한 갤럽 조사 결
과가 발표됐습니다. 18세 이상 성인 1,012 명을 대상으로 한 조사 결과입니
다. CSICOP 언론 보도문 밑에 갤럽 결과를 첨부했습니다.

전체적으로 미국인의 2분의 1 이상이 심령 치료와 초감각적 지각(ESP)을
믿고 3분의 1 이상이 귀신 나오는 집, 악령에 사로잡힘, 유령, 지구를 방문
한 외계인, 텔레파시, 투시를 믿는 것으로 나왔습니다. 이 중에 텔레파시와
투시가 ESP와 어떻게 구별되는지, 질문 항목을 그렇게 정했을 수도 있겠
다는 생각을 합니다. 우리의 경우 어떠한지, 조사를 해 보면 좋겠다는 생각
을 합니다.       

CSICOP 회장 폴 커츠는 스켑틱스 단체의 노력에도 불구하고 미신적 믿음
이 오히려 증가한 현상을 염려합니다. 모든 것이 대중 매체의 부추김 때문
이라고 말합니다. 과학적 방법, 비판적 사고 등을 학교 교육에서 가르칠 필
요성을 말합니다. 

여론 조사의 방법상 가슴으로 믿는 바를 조사했다는 조 니켈의 말도 들어
있습니다. 실제 경험한 적이 있는지, 증거가 있다고 보는 지 등을 물었다면
물론 초정상 현상의 믿음 비율은 낮게 나왔을 것입니다. 이 게시 글에 대
해 의견이 있는 분은 '회원 정보/토론'에 올리시기 바랍니다. 
   
...................................................
CSICOP PRESS RELEASE
 
Belief in the paranormal on the increase among Americans

Amherst, N.Y. (June 8, 2001)-The Gallup Organization released the
results of its new poll on paranormal beliefs, which indicate increases in
the percentage of Americans who believe in communication with the
dead, ESP, ghosts, psychic healing and extraterrestrial visitation.

The Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the
Paranormal (CSICOP)-publisher of the magazine Skeptical Inquirer-has
been criticizing and examining paranormal beliefs for 25 years. "This
latest Gallup Poll is disturbing," says Paul Kurtz, chairman  of CSICOP,
"because it shows an increase in superstition in the United 
States-particularly in regard to communicating with the dead, haunted
 houses, ghosts, and psychic healing.

According to the study, the most notable increases between 1990 and
2001 are beliefs in psychic or spiritual healing (up 8 percent to 54
percent); haunted houses (up 13 percent to 42 percent); communication
with the dead (up 10 percent to 28%); and witches (up 12 percent to 26
percent).

Kurtz blames the media for increased credulity. "These results may be
traced directly to the mass media, especially sensationalized TV shows,
films, and the tabloid press and publishers. It's regrettable that
Americans show lower scores in scientific literacy among their young
people in comparison with other democratic societies. The poll also
points to the urgent need, we submit, for teaching critical thinking in
schools and colleges. That should have a high national priority." The
National Science Board's 2000 Science & Engineering Indicators survey
found an abysmally low understanding of the scientific method and
general science knowledge among Americans.

CSICOP Senior Research Fellow Joe Nickell feels that the poll asks the
wrong questions. "The poll asks people whether they believe in a
phenomenon, which amounts to asking them whether they want to
believe. They're polling the heart, not the head. If respondents had also
been asked whether they have experienced these phenomena themselves,
or whether they thought there was good scientific evidence supporting
these beliefs, I suspect those scores would have been much lower."

.........................................
POLL RELEASES
June 8, 2001
Americans' Belief in Psychic and Paranormal Phenomena Is up Over
Last Decade. Belief in psychic healing and extrasensory perception top
the list.

by Frank Newport and Maura Strausberg

GALLUP NEWS SERVICE

PRINCETON, NJ -- What exactly do Americans believe in when it
comes to the paranormal, the occult, and "out-of-this-world"
experiences? The Gallup Poll recently updated its audit of
Americans?beliefs in a variety of these types of phenomena. The results
suggest a significant increase in belief in a number of these experiences
over the past decade, including in particular such Halloween-related
issues as haunted houses, ghosts and witches. Only one of the
experiences tested has seen a drop in belief since 1990: devil
possession. Overall, half or more of Americans believe in two of the
issues: psychic or spiritual healing, and extrasensory perception (ESP),
and a third or more believe in such things as haunted houses,
possession by the devil, ghosts, telepathy, extraterrestrial beings having
visited earth, and clairvoyance.

Basic Beliefs
The list of 13 experiences tested in the poll is eclectic, ranging from
Halloween- and occult-oriented phenomena such as ghosts and witches,
to mental experiences such as ESP, clairvoyance, and psychic or
spiritual healing.

Americans?overall beliefs in the experiences tested range from a slight
majority who believe in the power of the human mind to heal the body,
to a low of 15% who believe in the New Age concept of channeling or
allowing a "spirit-being" to assume control of a body during a trance.

Here is the overall pattern of results:
*Psychic or spiritual healing or the power of the human mind to heal
the body
Believe 54%
Not sure  19%
Don't believe  26%

(이하 같은 형식입니다)
*ESP or extrasensory perception
 50
 20
 27
 
*That houses can be haunted
 42
 16
 41
 
*That people on this earth are sometimes possessed by the devil
 41
 16
 41
 
*Ghosts or that spirits of dead people can come back in certain places
and situations
 38
 17
 44
 
*Telepathy, or communication between minds without using the
traditional five senses
 36
 26
 35
 
*That extraterrestrial beings have visited earth at some time in the
past
 33
 27
 38
 
*Clairvoyance, or the power of the mind to know the past and predict
the future
 32
 23
 45
 
*That people can hear from or communicate mentally with someone
who has died
 28
 26
 46
 
*Astrology, or that the position of the stars and planets can affect
people's lives
 28
 18
 52
 
*Witches
 26
 15
 59
 
*Reincarnation, that is, the rebirth of the soul in a new body after
death
 25
 20
 54
 
*Channeling, or allowing a "spirit-being" to temporarily assume control
of a human body during a trance
 15
 21
 62
 
Belief in a Number of These Phenomena Is up Since 1990
Belief in several of these experiences has not changed significantly over
the last 11 years. For seven experiences tested, however, there has
been an increase in belief of more than five percentage points:

Haunted houses
Ghosts
Witches
Communicating with someone who has died
Psychic or spiritual healing
That extraterrestrial beings have visited earth
Clairvoyance

There has been a significant downturn in belief in just one of the
experiences tested: possession by the devil, in which 41% of Americans
believe today, compared to 49% in 1990.

 
Differences by Subgroup
Belief in these phenomena shows significant differences within major
demographic and belief groups of the American population:

Age
There are interesting differences in belief in these varied experiences by
the age of the respondent. Younger Americans -- those 18-29 -- are
much more likely than those who are older to believe in haunted
houses, in witches, in ghosts, that extraterrestrials have visited earth,
and in clairvoyance. There is little significant difference in belief in the
other items by age group. Those 30 and older are somewhat more
likely to believe in possession by the devil than are the younger group.

Gender
Women are slightly more likely than men to believe in ghosts and that
people can communicate with the dead. Men, on the other hand, are
more likely than women to believe in only one of the dimensions
tested: that extraterrestrials have visited earth at some point in the
past.

Education
Americans with the highest levels of education are more likely than
others to believe in the power of the mind to heal the body. On the
other hand, belief in three of the phenomena tested goes up as the
educational level of the respondent goes down: possession by the devil,
astrology and haunted houses.

Importance of Religion
Perhaps not surprisingly, the major difference in belief in these
phenomena by importance of religion focuses on the devil: 55% of those
who say religion is very important in their daily lives say they believe
in devil possession, compared to just 14% of those who say religion is
"not very" important to them. Religion is also correlated to belief in
extraterrestrials: Those for whom religion is very important are less
likely to say they believe in beings from other worlds that may have
visited this planet than are those who are less religious.

Survey Methods
The results reported here are based on telephone interviews with a
randomly selected national sample of 1,012 adults, 18 years and older,
conducted May 10-14, 2001. For results based on this sample, one can
say with 95 percent confidence that the maximum error attributable to
sampling and other random effects is plus or minus 3 percentage points.
In addition to sampling error, question wording and practical difficulties
in conducting surveys can introduce error or bias into the findings of
public opinion polls.
.................................................................