신과학/철학
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스켑틱스/기타 주제
   
  [스켑틱 뉴스] 성 야누아리우스의 기적의 피
  글쓴이 : kopsa     날짜 : 00-09-27 21:19     조회 : 4564    
[스켑틱 뉴스] 성 야누아리우스의 기적의 피

이탈리아 나폴리의 보호성인 성 야누아리우스(Saint Januarius)의 성혈에
관한 내용입니다. 이를 연구한 이탈리아 가르라셸리(Luigi Garlaschelli)와 
관련된 내용을 게시한 적이 있는데, 새로운 내용이 포함돼 있습니다.

Saint Januarius는 영어식 이며 San Gennaro가 이탈리아식 표기인 것 같
습니다. 베수비오 화산 근처의 물질로 충분히 피와 같이 보이는 흔들면 액
화되는 물질을 만들 수 있었으리라는 가르라셸리의 해석만을 알고 있었는
데,  피셔(John F. Fischer)와 니켈(Joe Nickell)에 의하면 단지 피와 같은
색깔의 '오일-왁스 혼합물'의 경우도 가능하리라는 것입니다. 체열 등 열에
의해 액화될 것입니다. CSICOP report 입니다.
.......................................................
The Miracle Blood of San Gennaro

Amherst, NY (September 22, 2000)--On Tuesday, September 19, 2000,
in Naples, Italy, an expected "miracle" occurred: a congealed substance
many believe is the blood of a martyred saint liquefied in its vial. San
Gennaro (in English Saint Januarius) is Naples' patron saint, and the
superstitious believe that if the "blood" does not liquefy disaster may
strike. In 1980 a massive earthquake struck southern Italy after one
failed liquefaction, yet in 1631, after the "miracle" had taken place,
Vesuvius erupted, killing 18,000.

The glass vial containing the bloody substance is housed in a
monstrance (a shrine in the form of a stand) which is brought out of
its vault twice yearly: on the Saturday preceding the first Sunday in
May, and on September 19, the saint's feast day. The latter is the
anniversary of San Gennaro's legendary death.

The Catholic Church has never been able to document Gennaro's
existence as an actual historical personage, and in the 1960s his
importance was greatly diminished, along with the other folkloric
figures like Saint George the legendary dragon slayer. There is no
historical record for the alleged martyr's "blood" until the late
fourteenth century, more than a millennium after his reputed beheading.

The congealed substance itself has never been reliably tested, despite
the local church's claims based on dubious spectral analyses. In fact,
the substance has qualities that differentiate it from genuine blood.
Adding to skeptic's suspicions, there are some twenty other saints'
bloods that liquefy, virtually every one of them from the Naples
area--suggestive of some local secret.

Two skeptical hypotheses have been offered to explain the Januarian
phenomenon by natural means--both suggesting that it is a pious
fraud. In 1991 a group of Italian scientists--Luigi Garlaschelli and two
colleagues, Franco Ramaccini and Sergio Della Sala--demonstrated that
they could simulate the effect with a thixotropic gel, a substance that
liquefies when agitated and resolidifies when allowed to stand.

About the same time two American researchers--forensic analyst John
F. Fischer and paranormal investigator Joe Nickell--showed they could
reproduce a liquefying and recongealing miracle blood using a colored
oil-and-wax mixture. When slightly warmed by heat sources such as
nearby candles and body heat, the bogus blood can suddenly liquefy.
Nickell and Fischer jokingly attribute their phenomenon to "Saint
Februarius."

Although suitable tests of San Gennaro's alleged blood are still not
permitted, the Italian scientists were allowed to test one of the other
Naples-area vials without breaking it open or damaging its contents. It
did not respond to being shaken, but it did liquefy when warmed gently
by a hair dryer.

For a discussion see Joe Nickell with John F. Fischer, "Mysterious
Realms: Probing Paranormal, Historical, and Forensic Enigmas",
Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1992, pp. 145-164.
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