| [스켑틱 뉴스] 미 공립학교 진화론 교육 조사
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날짜 : 00-09-26 17:54
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[스켑틱 뉴스] 미 공립학교 진화론 교육 조사
CSICOP 등 스켑틱 단체로부터 KOPSA로 새로운 정보들이 들어옵니다.
앞으로 이들 정보 중에서 가치가 있는 것을 골라 원문으로 게시합니다. 수
시로 게시하려고 합니다. 물론 주제가 정해지면 이들 정보를 포함한 내용
을 정리하여 학술정보로 게시합니다.
이번 뉴스는 2000년 9월 21일 CNN.com에 오른 미 공립학교의 3분의 1이
진화론을 가르치지 않는다는 "Science report: A third of U.S. schools
don't teach evolution"라는 글입니다. Nature에 실린 논문을 보도한 것입
니다. 이런 뉴스 전문게시 저작권법 문제는 좀 알아보아야 겠습니다.
By Environmental News Network staff
One-third of all children who attend public schools in the United States
are being taught unsatisfactory science, according to a study published
today in the journal Nature.
The evaluation by Lawrence Lerner, a professor of natural sciences and
mathematics at California State University at Long Beach, graded each
state according to its treatment of evolution in the classroom.
Lerner used as the basis for his evaluation state science standards as
they apply to the teaching of evolution.
According to Lerner, several criteria are necessary for providing
students with a good understanding of evolution. At primary grade
levels, students should be able to understand that all living things
reproduce, that their offspring resembles but does not copy their
parents, and that there is a relationship between species and the
environment in which they live.
At secondary grade levels, these ideas should be developed into an
understanding of the survival between and within species. High school
students should have a grasp of the limitations that species face due to
environmental factors such as the availability of food and water,
specialization, genetic mutation and natural selection.
Based on Lerner's evaluation, 10 states received an A grade for being
"superb models" in teaching evolution. Fourteen states got Bs, seven
got Cs, six got Ds and 12 failed. In the wake of a decision by the
Kansas Board of Education to drop evolution from its statewide science
standards, Lerner gave the state the only F- in the assessment.
Opposition to teaching evolution is based on the belief that evolution
did not occur and that science's picture of the universe is misguided.
The strongest critics of evolution in the schools are creationists who
believe that the world and all matter and life forms were created by a
divine being out of nothing.
Because of political and social pressures, evolution is the biggest
variable of science curriculum in the United States, according to Lerner.
Alabama, Texas and Nebraska teach evolution as one possibility for
how the universe was created. In Alabama, science textbooks include a
warning to students that evolution is theory and not fact.
Evolution, Lerner maintains, is important not just for those seeking
careers in science but also for anyone who wants to have a general
understanding of science.
"Science tells you all sorts of things you can't see," Lerner said.
"There is a need for the central organizing principle of evolution.
Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.
Without it, the facts seem counter-intuitive and they don't connect."
Lerner noted that the distribution of grades was not as regional as
might be expected. There were As in the Bible Belt of the Midwest
and Southeast and Fs in the Northeast, he noted.
Evolution is especially important in raising students' awareness about
the changing environment around them, Lerner said.
"Evolution is intimately tied to ecology," he said. "Humans, of course,
have a more diverse effect on the environment than any other living
thing. Most species are highly specialized for their environments and
evolve as the environments change. If the environmental changes are
too rapid or too profound, the species becomes extinct."
The island fox, for example, successfully inhabited the Channel Islands
off the coast of Southern California for 16,000 years. In the past five
years, four of six island fox populations have declined by 90 percent. A
principal reason for this decline may be the introduction of golden
eagles into the area beginning in the early 1990s, scientists say.
"The island foxes were snacks the eagles could easily get to," said
natural biologist David Garcelon, president of the Institute for Wildlife
Studies. "The foxes had no vigilant response."
The colonization of the islands by golden eagles was made possible by
the decline and extirpation, influenced by humans, of their natural
competitor, the bald eagle, which preys primarily on fish, not mammals.
"Without the insight of evolution, students inevitably come to see
science as a heap of disconnected facts," Lerner wrote in the Nature
report. "The present state of scientific literacy among U.S. adults bears
witness to the ubiquity of this kind of learning experience."
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